Global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) by continents and national income: a meta‐analysis

Ghayda, Ramy A. and Lee, Keum Hwa and Han, Young Joo and Ryu, Seohyun and Hong, Sung Hwi and Yoon, Sojung and Jeong, Gwang Hun and Yang, Jae Won and Lee, Hyo Jeong and Lee, Jinhee and Lee, Jun Young and Effenberger, Maria and Eisenhut, Michael and Kronbichler, Andreas and Solmi, Marco and Li, Han and Jacob, Louis and Koyanagi, Ai and Radua, Joaquim and Park, Myung Bae and Aghayeva, Sevda and Ahmed, Mohamed L. C. B. and Al Serouri, Abdulwahed and Al‐Shamsi, Humaid O. and Amir‐Behghadami, Mehrdad and Baatarkhuu, Oidov and Bashour, Hyam and Bondarenko, Anastasiia and Camacho‐Ortiz, Adrian and Castro, Franz and Cox, Horace and Davtyan, Hayk and Douglas, Kirk and Dragioti, Elena and Ebrahim, Shahul and Ferioli, Martina and Harapan, Harapan and Mallah, Saad I. and Ikram, Aamer and Inoue, Shigeru and Jankovic, Slobodan and Jayarajah, Umesh and Jesenak, Milos and Kakodkar, Pramath and Kebede, Yohannes and Kifle, Meron and Koh, David and Males, Visnja K. and Kotfis, Katarzyna and Lakoh, Sulaiman and Ling, Lowell and Llibre‐Guerra, Jorge and Machida, Masaki and Makurumidze, Richard and Mamun, Mohammed and Masic, Izet and Van Minh, Hoang and Moiseev, Sergey and Nadasdy, Thomas and Nahshon, Chen and Ñamendys‐Silva, Silvio A. and Yongsi, Blaise N. and Nielsen, Henning B. and Nodjikouambaye, Zita A. and Ohnmar, Ohnmar and Oksanen, Atte and Owopetu, Oluwatomi and Parperis, Konstantinos and Perez, Gonzalo E. and Pongpirul, Krit and Rademaker, Marius and Rosa, Sandro and Sah, Ranjit and Sallam, Dina and Schober, Patrick and Singhal, Tanu and Tafaj, Silva and Torres, Irene and Smith Torres‐Roman, J. and Tsartsalis, Dimitrios and Tsolmon, Jadamba and Tuychiev, Laziz and Vukcevic, Batric and Wanghi, Guy and Wollina, Uwe and Xu, Ren‐He and Yang, Lin and Zaidi, Zoubida and Smith, Lee and Shin, Jae Il (2022) Global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) by continents and national income: a meta‐analysis. Journal of Medical Virology, 94 (6). pp. 2402-2413. ISSN 1096-9071

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Available under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27610

Abstract

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's CFR by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. Based on the data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR were estimated based on the different geographical regions and level of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors and the mitigatory efforts of individuals countries.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: case fatality rate (CFR), continents, COVID-19, proportion meta-analysis
Faculty: COVID-19 Research Collection
Faculty of Science & Engineering
Depositing User: Lisa Blanshard
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2022 14:11
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2022 13:56
URI: https://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/707304

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