Global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) by continents and national income: a meta‐analysis

Ghayda, Ramy A., Lee, Keum Hwa, Han, Young Joo, Ryu, Seohyun, Hong, Sung Hwi, Yoon, Sojung, Jeong, Gwang Hun, Yang, Jae Won, Lee, Hyo Jeong, Lee, Jinhee, Lee, Jun Young, Effenberger, Maria, Eisenhut, Michael, Kronbichler, Andreas, Solmi, Marco, Li, Han, Jacob, Louis, Koyanagi, Ai, Radua, Joaquim, Park, Myung Bae, Aghayeva, Sevda, Ahmed, Mohamed L. C. B., Al Serouri, Abdulwahed, Al‐Shamsi, Humaid O., Amir‐Behghadami, Mehrdad, Baatarkhuu, Oidov, Bashour, Hyam, Bondarenko, Anastasiia, Camacho‐Ortiz, Adrian, Castro, Franz, Cox, Horace, Davtyan, Hayk, Douglas, Kirk, Dragioti, Elena, Ebrahim, Shahul, Ferioli, Martina, Harapan, Harapan, Mallah, Saad I., Ikram, Aamer, Inoue, Shigeru, Jankovic, Slobodan, Jayarajah, Umesh, Jesenak, Milos, Kakodkar, Pramath, Kebede, Yohannes, Kifle, Meron, Koh, David, Males, Visnja K., Kotfis, Katarzyna, Lakoh, Sulaiman, Ling, Lowell, Llibre‐Guerra, Jorge, Machida, Masaki, Makurumidze, Richard, Mamun, Mohammed, Masic, Izet, Van Minh, Hoang, Moiseev, Sergey, Nadasdy, Thomas, Nahshon, Chen, Ñamendys‐Silva, Silvio A., Yongsi, Blaise N., Nielsen, Henning B., Nodjikouambaye, Zita A., Ohnmar, Ohnmar, Oksanen, Atte, Owopetu, Oluwatomi, Parperis, Konstantinos, Perez, Gonzalo E., Pongpirul, Krit, Rademaker, Marius, Rosa, Sandro, Sah, Ranjit, Sallam, Dina, Schober, Patrick, Singhal, Tanu, Tafaj, Silva, Torres, Irene, Smith Torres‐Roman, J., Tsartsalis, Dimitrios, Tsolmon, Jadamba, Tuychiev, Laziz, Vukcevic, Batric, Wanghi, Guy, Wollina, Uwe, Xu, Ren‐He, Yang, Lin, Zaidi, Zoubida, Smith, Lee and Shin, Jae Il (2022) Global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) by continents and national income: a meta‐analysis. Journal of Medical Virology, 94 (6). pp. 2402-2413. ISSN 1096-9071

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27610

Abstract

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's CFR by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. Based on the data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR were estimated based on the different geographical regions and level of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors and the mitigatory efforts of individuals countries.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: case fatality rate (CFR), continents, COVID-19, proportion meta-analysis
Faculty: COVID-19 Research Collection
Faculty of Science & Engineering
Depositing User: Lisa Blanshard
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2022 14:11
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2022 13:56
URI: https://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/707304

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