Suicide associated with COVID-19 infection: an immunological point of view

Choi, Min Je and Yang, Jae Won and Lee, San and Kim, Jong Yeob and Oh, Jae Won and Lee, Jinhee and Stubbs, Brendon and Lee, Keum Hwa and Koyanagi, Ai and Hong, Sung Hwi and Ghayda, Ramy A. and Hwang, Jimin and Dragioti, Elena and Jacob, Louis and Carvalho, Andre F. and Radua, Joaquim and Thompson, Trevor and Smith, Lee and Fornaro, Michele and Stickley, Andrew and Bettac, Erica and Han, Young Joo and Kronbichler, Andreas and Yon, Dong Keon and Lee, Seung Won and Shin, Jae Il and Lee, Eun and Solmi, Marco (2021) Suicide associated with COVID-19 infection: an immunological point of view. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 25 (20). pp. 6397-6407. ISSN 2284-0729

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202110_27013

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and leading cause of death. Beyond the deaths directly caused by the virus and the suicides related to the psychological response to the dramatic changes as socioeconomic related to the pandemic, there might also be suicides related to the inflammatory responses of the infection. Infection induces inflammation as a cytokine storm, and there is an increasing number of studies that report a relationship between infection and suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization status report and the PubMed database for keywords (COVID-19, suicide, infection, inflammation, cytokines), and reviewed five cytokine pathways between suicide and inflammation using two meta-analyses and two observational studies starting from November 31, 2020, focusing on the relationship between suicide and inflammation by infection. First, we discussed existing evidence explaining the relationship between suicidal behaviors and inflammation. Second, we summarized the inflammatory features found in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we highlight the potential for these factors to affect the risk of suicide in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 have high amounts of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IP10, and MCP1, which may lead to Th1 cell response activation. Also, Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-10) were increased in COVID-19 infection. In COVID-19 patients, neurological conditions, like headache, dizziness, ataxia, seizures, and others have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic can serve as a significant environmental factor contributing directly to increased suicide risk; the role of inflammation by an infection should not be overlooked.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: suicide, COVID-19, immunological, infection, inflammation, cytokine
Faculty: COVID-19 Research Collection
Faculty of Science & Engineering
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic User
Depositing User: Symplectic User
Date Deposited: 14 Sep 2021 14:50
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2021 10:06
URI: https://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/706922

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