A validated method for the analysis and profiling of ‘nyaope’ using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

Mthembi, P. Meshack and Mwenesongole, Ellen M. and Cole, Michael D. (2021) A validated method for the analysis and profiling of ‘nyaope’ using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. South African Journal of Science, 117 (11/12). p. 8738. ISSN 1996-7489

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2021/8738

Abstract

Nyaope, a Tswana word for a mixture or ‘mish-mash’, describes a drug cocktail consisting of heroin, cannabis, and on occasion other controlled substances and warfarin. It is highly addictive with extremely unpleasant side effects caused by withdrawal from the drug. It is a problem drug especially in townships in South Africa. However, its prevalence in neighbouring southern African states and further afield is not yet known. There is currently no validated method for the analysis and comparison of nyaope. We describe a validated method for the gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis of nyaope so that within-batch and between-batch comparisons of nyaope can successfully be made for the first time. The validated method managed an accuracy within the range 80–120%, the precision was less than 20% for all analytes and managed linearity with R2≥0.99. The detection limits for diamorphine, efavirenz, nevirapine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol were 14.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 9.94 pg on column, respectively, and the limits of quantitation were 43.1, 56.3, 56.6 and 30.1 pg on column, respectively. The simulated and casework samples were successfully discriminated into original batches using the identified nyaope components, the unsupervised chemometric methods principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, as well as chromatographic profiles.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: validated analytical method, heroin, cannabis, nyaope, GC–MS, sample comparison
Faculty: Faculty of Science & Engineering
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic User
Depositing User: Symplectic User
Date Deposited: 15 Sep 2021 10:06
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2022 12:51
URI: https://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/706917

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