Readability following cultural and linguistic adaptations of an Internet-based Intervention for Tinnitus for use in the United States

Beukes, Eldré W. and Fagelson, Marc and Parks Aronson, Elizabeth and Munoz, Maria and Andersson, Gerhard and Manchaiah, Vinaya (2020) Readability following cultural and linguistic adaptations of an Internet-based Intervention for Tinnitus for use in the United States. American Journal of Audiology, 29 (2). pp. 97-109. ISSN 1558-9137

Accepted Version
Available under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Official URL:


Purpose: An Internet-based tinnitus intervention for use in the United States could improve the provision of tinnitus-related services. Although such interventions have undergone clinical trials in Europe, the UK, and Australia, their suitability for adults with tinnitus in the US has not been established. The aim of this study was to improve the cultural and linguistic suitability, and lower the readability level, of an existing program for tinnitus to ensure its suitability for US English-and Spanish-speaking populations. Method: Guidelines for cultural adaptation were followed and involved four phases: (i) cultural adaptations, as interventions targeted at specific cultures have been shown to improve outcomes; (ii) creating Spanish materials to improve access of the materials to the large Spanish-speaking population in the US; (iii) professional review of the materials for acceptability as an intervention tool for a US population; and (iv) literacy level adjustments to make the content accessible to those with lower levels of health literacy skills. Results: Cultural adaptations were made by using word substitutions, changing examples and modifying the spelling of certain words. The materials were then translated into Spanish and cross-checked. Professional review ensured suitability of the chapters. Literacy level adjustments ensured all chapters were within the guidelines for readability grade levels below the 6th-grade level. Conclusions: The previously developed tinnitus materials were revised to adhere to best practice guidelines and ensure cultural suitability for adults with tinnitus in the US. As it is also available in Spanish, members of the large Hispanic community also have access to the intervention in their first language. Further studies should determine whether these changes improve patients’ self-efficacy, engagement, and motivation to complete the intervention.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: Internet intervention, Cultural adaptation, Linguistic adaptation, readability, Translation, Tinnitus, Health literacy
Faculty: Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine & Social Care
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic User
Depositing User: Symplectic User
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2019 10:14
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2021 18:53

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item