Position-specific measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in cellulose: Isotopic exchange during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis

Waterhouse, John S. and Cheng, Shuying and Juchelka, Dieter and Loader, Neil J. and McCarroll, Danny and Switsur, V. Roy and Gautam, Lata (2013) Position-specific measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in cellulose: Isotopic exchange during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. ISSN 0016-7037

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Abstract

We describe the first reported method for the measurement of oxygen isotope ratios at each position in the glucose units of the cellulose molecule. The overall process comprises a series of synthetic organic sequences, by which α-cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose, and oxygen atoms at specific positions in the glucose molecule are removed in samples of benzoic acid for measurement of δ18O. Values of δ18O at specific positions in cellulose are calculated from these δ18O values and the overall δ18O value of the cellulose. We apply the method to determine the degree to which oxygen atoms at each position undergo isotopic exchange with water during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis, such as occurs in the cambium of trees. To do this we extract α-cellulose from wheat seedlings germinated in the dark in aqueous media of differing oxygen isotope ratios. Results indicate that oxygen atoms at positions 5 and 6 (O-5 and O-6 respectively) undergo around 80% exchange with medium water, O-3 undergoes around 50% exchange, and O-2 and O-4 do not undergo isotopic exchange. The results have important implications for extracting palaeoclimatic records from oxygen isotope time series obtained from tree ring cellulose. As O-5 and O-6 undergo significant exchange with medium water during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis, oxygen isotopes at these positions in tree ring cellulose should carry a predominantly trunk (source) water signal. On the other hand, O-2 and O-4 should retain the isotopic signature of leaf water in tree ring cellulose. Our method therefore potentially enables the separate reconstruction of past temperature and humidity data from oxygen isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose – something that has hitherto not been possible. The measured degrees of isotopic exchange are to some extent unexpected and cannot be fully explained using current biochemical mechanisms, suggesting that knowledge of these processes is incomplete.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Citation: Waterhouse, J.S., Cheng, S., Juchelka, D., Loader, N., McCarroll, D., Switsur, V.R. and Gautam, L., 2013. Position-specific measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in cellulose: Isotopic exchange during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 112, pp.178-191..
Faculty: Faculty of Science & Technology
Depositing User: Mr I Walker
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2013 12:05
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2017 09:14
URI: http://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/306868

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